Although the scrolls are long gone, one can imagine the stately Celsus Library at Ephesus as a center for knowledge in ancient times.
The second century library lay hidden under the ruins of Ephesus for centuries. It was discovered in the early 1900s and was reconstructed in the 1970s. An inscription on the facade dedicates the building to its donor, Tiberius Julius Celsus Ptolemaeanus, who held the position of Roman consul and proconsul of Asia in 105 AD. Image: Dennis Jarvis
Experts identified the building as a library by the stone niches located around the exterior walls. Wooden closets were placed in these niches to house scrolls and other documents. Since there were no steps found in the building, scholars assume that access to the upper floor book closets was gained via ladders or wooden staircases. Image: Jessica Lian